Typhoid fever Causes and Symptoms

Typhoid fever Causes and Symptoms

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that causes a high fever, diarrhea, and vomiting. It can be deadly. Salmonella typhi is the bacteria that causes it. The infection is frequently spread through contaminated food and drinking water, and it is more common in areas where handwashing is less common. A human carrier deposits the bacteria in water or food, which is then spread to other people in the area.

The incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has markedly decreased since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported in the U.S. Today, less than 400 cases are reported annually in the United States, mostly in people who have recently traveled to Mexico and South America. This improvement is the result of better environmental sanitation. India, Pakistan, and Egypt are also known as high-risk areas for developing this disease. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, with about 200,000 people dying from the disease. In this article below you are going to  see all the details concerning on typhoid fever and also how we can prevent or cure it.

How Do People Get Typhoid Fever?

Following the acute illness, approximately 3% to 5% of people become carriers of the bacteria. Others have minor illnesses that go unnoticed. Even if they show no symptoms, these people may become long-term carriers of the bacteria and be the source of new typhoid fever outbreaks for many years.

Typhoid fever is spread through drinking or eating bacteria found in contaminated food or water. People suffering from acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply with their stool, which contains a high concentration of bacteria. Contamination of the water supply has the potential to contaminate the food supply. The bacteria can survive in water or dried sewage for weeks

How Is Typhoid Fever Diagnosed?

Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and briefly enter the bloodstream after ingesting contaminated food or water. White blood cells transport the bacteria to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where they multiply and reenter the bloodstream. At this point, people begin to experience symptoms such as fever. Bacteria infiltrate the gallbladder, biliary system, and bowel lymphatic tissue. They multiply rapidly in this location. The bacteria enter the digestive tract and can be detected in stool samples. If a test result is inconclusive, blood or urine samples will be collected to make a diagnosis.

What Are the Symptoms of Typhoid Fever?

The incubation period is usually 1-2 weeks, and the illness lasts about 3-4 weeks. Among the symptoms are:

  • Poor appetite
  • Headaches
  • Generalized aches and pains
  • Fever as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Lethargy
  • Diarrhea

Many people develop chest congestion, and abdominal pain and discomfort are common. The fever becomes uncontrollable. In those who do not have complications, improvement occurs in the third and fourth weeks. After feeling better for one to two weeks, about 10% of people experience recurrent symptoms. Relapses are actually more common in people who have been treated with antibiotics.

How is Typhoid fever Treated?

Antibiotics are used to treat typhoid fever because they kill the Salmonella bacteria. Prior to the use of antibiotics, the death rate was 20%. Overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding, or intestinal perforation all resulted in death. Mortality has been reduced to 1% to 2% 

with antibiotics and supportive care. With appropriate antibiotic therapy, patients typically improve within one to two days and recover within seven to ten days.

Several antibiotics are effective against typhoid fever. For many years, chloramphenicol was the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol has been replaced by other effective antibiotics due to rare serious side effects. Antibiotics are chosen based on the geographic region where the infection was contracted (certain strains from South America show a significant resistance to some antibiotics.) If relapses occur, patients are given antibiotics again.

Those who become chronically ill (about 3% to 5% of those infected) can be treated with long-term antibiotics. Often, removing the gallbladder, which is the source of the chronic infection, will provide a cure.

Vaccines are now available for those traveling to high-risk areas.

Best cure of Typhoid fever

  • Antibiotic therapy is the only effective treatment for typhoid fever.
  • Commonly prescribed antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this for adults who aren't pregnant. ...
  • Azithromycin (Zithromax). ...
  • Ceftriaxone.

Typhoid fever at a glance

  • Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteria cause typhoid fever.
  • Typhoid fever is spread through the consumption of tainted food or water.
  • Typhoid fever is diagnosed when Salmonella bacteria are found in stool, urine, or blood cultures.
  • Antibiotics are used to treat typhoid fever.
  • Poor appetite, headaches, generalized aches and pains, fever, and lethargy are all symptoms of typhoid fever.
  • After the acute illness, approximately 3% to 5% of patients become carriers of the bacteria.

How can we prevent Typhoid fever

  • Wash your hands. Frequent hand-washing in hot, soapy water is the best way to control infection.
  • Avoid drinking untreated water. Contaminated drinking water is a particular problem in areas where typhoid fever is endemic. ...
  • Avoid raw fruits and vegetables. ...
  • Choose hot foods. ...
  • Know where the doctors are

Final thoughts and conclusion on typhoid fever 

Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem in Nigeria. The infection however can be prevented by good sanitation, improving good water supply, the provision of proper sewage disposal system, as well as the effective use of the available typhoid vaccines.

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