What Are Cells: Parts of a Cell and its Functions
As science world continue to develop, more theories are constantly being put forth and one of these theories is the cell theory. This cell theory suggest that all organisms are made up of similar units of an organization which simply means that even though a rat, a flower and lion differ externally, all are internally constituted of the same building blocks.
A complex structure of an organism can be created by trillions of cells and this notion is the central tenant of biology.
Same as the invention of a telescope facilitated the exploration of cosmos, so to did the invention of microscope do as it helps scientist to look into a smaller organisms easily.
What is a Cell ?
In Biology, there are quite numerous valid definitions of cells and in this article, we define cells as the microscopic units that make up humans and every other living organisms with some having just 1 cell and others having trillions of cells like humans.
Or still, you can define cells as the basic building blocks of all living things. These cells are also made up of the body's hereditary material and can also make copies of themselves.
Types of Cells
When it comes to types of cells, There exist only two main types of cells ; Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, with the Prokaryotic cells lacking a true nucleus.
Prokaryotic cells comprise of bacteria and archaea. The genetic material of prokaryotes is not store in a memebrane bound nucleus but it is insteade stored in a nucleoid that floats in the cell's cytoplasm. Generally, prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells and prokaryotes are made of single cells but that can pair up in order to form mats.
Eukaryotic cells are the cells found in animals, plants, fungi and protists. Eukaryotic cells generally have nucleus and this is one of the main feature that differentiate them from prokaryite which do not have a nucleus. There are also a few exceptions in this generality like for example the human red blood cells lacks a nucleus when it gets mature. It is of no doubt that Eukaryotic cells are typically larger than prokaryotic cells often ranging from 10 to 100 micrometer in diameter.
Some Importances and Functions of Cell Parts
Cells provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food substances and later on convert those nutrients into energy in order to carryout specialised functions. Cells also contain the body's hereditary material and they can also replicate themselves.
To look at the importances of cells, we are going to base on the different parts of a cell structure and then outline each function that the part carries out.
- Cytoplasm : The Cytoplasm is made up of jelly like fluid called the cytosol which in it, are found other tructures that surround he nuckeus.
- Cytoskeleton: The Cytoskeleton refers to a network of long fibres that make up cell's structural framework and the cytoskeleton has several vital functions such as; determining the cell shape, allowing cells to move and participating in taking part in cell division
- Endoplasmic Reticulum: The ER helps to process the molecules created by the cell and at the same time, they also play the role of transporting it to their target destination in and out of the cell.
- Lysosomes and peroxisomes: Here are the cell organelles that are often referred to as the recycling centre of the cell since they are capable of digesting foreign bacteria that invade the cell, get rid of toxic substances and recycle worn out components of the cell
- Golgi apparattus: The Golgi apparattus helps in the packaging of the molecules already processed by the Endoplasmic reticulum for it to be transported out of the cell to their destination of use.
- Mitichondria: Mitochondria unlike the other cell organelles, it is a complex organelle that is capable of converting the energy formed from food in to a form that cells can make use of. Mitochondria have their own genetic material which is separate from that found in the DNA of the nucleus and also able of making copies of themselves.
- Nucleus: The neucleus is more of like a cell command centre, sending directions to the cell to grow, marture, divide or even dies. The nucleus also contains the DNA , the cell's hereditary material . The Nucleus is surrounded by a membrane known as the nuclear envelope and this envelope helps protect the DNA and also to separate the Nucleus from the rest of the cell.
- Plasma membrane: This refers to the outer lining of the cell, it separates the cell from its environment and also allows materials to enter and leave the cell.
- Ribosomes: These refers to organelles that process the cell's genetic instructions in order to create proteins. These organelles are often found either floating freely in the cytoplasm or attached to the Endoplasmic reticulum.